What to Do With an Injury


For external bleeding, apply direct pressure on wound (except for impaled objects) Remember, R.E.D:

  • Rest patient
  • Elevate wounded limb
  • Direct pressure on wound

Do not apply a tourniquet.

Broken Bones

Signs and symptoms:

  • Patient heard bone "snap"
  • Deformity at site of fracture - pain at site of fracture
  • Impaired movement of limb


  • Do not move
  • Help patient find a comfortable position
  • Control bleeding if present


  • Do not remove any material stuck to the skin
  • Cover area of the burn with clean, water moistened dressing
  • Apply clean water to dressed burn, to cool, as required
  • Never put any medication on burn unless a doctor directs you to do so
  • Do not use creams, lotions, butter, etc


If the patient is coughing or can speak - do nothing.


  1. Place child over your arm, with head lower than body
  2. Deliver four back blows
  3. Follow with chest thrusts
  4. If unsuccessful, repeat

Choking Sign

A choking patient could collapse in one minute and might die without your help. Choking patients cannot speak to you; learn the sign for choking - and watch for it.

If the patient is coughing or can speak - do nothing.

If they cannot breath or speak to you, take action:

  1. Reassure the patient
  2. Support his or her body
  3. Landmark and apply abdominal thrusts
  4. Repeat until the object is expelled

Heart Attacks

Heart Attack: The Number 1 Killer

Many heart attacks can be prevented, learn to reduce the risk:

  • Quit smoking

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat properly
  • Reduce stress
  • Have your blood pressure checked regularly

Symptoms - watch for these signs:
(A conscious heart attack patient can usually speak to you)

  • Ashen skin color
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Weakness


Remember, the first two hours are most important. Take positive action. Expect denial - be persistent in giving assistance. If the signals persist for two minutes or longer... sit the person down, reassure him or her and send for an ambulance.


Care for Seizures:

  • Do not attempt to restrain patient
  • Do not attempt to force anything between the patient's teeth
  • Beware of the possibility of the patient causing personal injury by striking surrounding objects, during the seizure (remove objects, if possible)
  • When seizure is over place patient in the recovery position
  • Call 911, if necessary


Care of Shock:

  • Act immediately
  • Keep patient lying down
  • Reassure patient
  • Elevate patient's legs
  • Keep patient warm - avoid overheating
  • Watch patient carefully
  • Do not give the patient anything to drink - especially alcohol


Evaluation is critical:

  • If a spinal injury is suspected, shout into patient's ear for response. Do not shake.
  • If a spinal injury is not suspected, shake shoulders and shout in ear for response
  • If there is no other response:
    • Look, listen, and feel for breathing
    • If patient is not breathing, give mouth to mouth resuscitation (one breath every five seconds)
    • If patient is breathing, place him or her in the recovery position to prevent choking